Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Psychological criticism has roots as far back as the fourth century BC, when Aristotle Ã¢â¬Å"commented on the effects of tragedy on an audience, saying hat by evoking pity and fear, tragedy creates a cathartic of those emotionsÃ¢â¬ (Dobie 54). More recently, however, psychological criticism has been shaped and influenced by the work of Sigmund Freud. He developed theories concerning Ã¢â¬Å"the workings of the human psyche, its formations, its organization, and its maladiesÃ¢â¬ that, while further refined by other theorists, are still the basis of the modern approach to literary criticism (Dobie 54). FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of the tripartite psyche is used to classify and define the conscious and unconscious mind into the id, ego, and superego. When examined using this theory, Margaret AtwoodÃ¢â¬â¢s The HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale, a dystopian novel about a patriarchal totalitarian government that has replaced the United States of America, is particularly interesting. The storyÃ¢â¬â¢s protagonist and narrator is a woman referred to as Offred, who lives in the fairly new Republic of Gilead which has taken the place of the United States. She is what is known as a Handmaid; alarmingly low reproductive rates led to young women whom are able to reproduce being assigned to well-off couples who are infertile. Essentially they are sex slaves being used for their uteruses. These women are generally not willing or believers in the new regime or in their new roles in society -- they are given the choice between beingShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Margaret Atwood s The Handmaids Tale 1405 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshave witnessed the corruption of governments before even if we didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even realize it. From communism to democracy, world wars to civil wars, genocides to religious upraises, government involvement has always been silently exalted. In Margaret AtwoodÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËThe Handmaids TaleÃ¢â¬â¢, we see the fear of the Gileadian society caused b y a rÃ ©gime government who practices its inhumane beliefs through everyday life in Gilead. The uses of military corruption, fear, and oppression are things that describe the everydayRead MoreAnalysis Of The Handmaid s Tale By Margaret Atwood1401 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesand psychologists, but surprisingly, a writer - Margaret Atwood has successfully described if not answer the issue of independence and passivity in The HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale. A dystopian novel set in the post-apocalyptic America now so-called Republic of Gilead, a totalitarian government. With the critically low reproduction rates due to biological warfare, the Handmaids are allocated to give births within the oppressive regime. The story of the Handmaids has clarified the definition of freewill and independenceRead MoreAnalysis Of Margaret Atwood s The Handmaid s Tale847 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesincessant restrictions are for their own good. No restrictions are more stringent than those bestowed on the women, and mor e specifically, the handmaids. Although, Gilead claims to be built on a principal set of values, its principles are ignored and challenged to ensure everything runs smoothly in the eyes of GileadÃ¢â¬â¢s patriarchy. In Margaret AtwoodÃ¢â¬â¢s The HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale, the Republic of Gilead, a corrupt government adamant on supporting a better way of life for females, undermines their very own beliefsRead MoreAnalysis Of Margaret Atwood s The Handmaid s Tale1825 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesIn Margaret AtwoodÃ¢â¬â¢s The HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale, we meet Offred, or so they call her, a Handmaid in the Republic of Gilead, a futuristic dystopian society. Gilead tarnished traditional values and replaced them with shear corruption after the rebels killed the President as well as most of Congress, took over the government, and decided to throw out the constitution. Instead the society relies on the bible to justify its barbaric rules, limitations and practices. In a totalitarian society of dec reasing birthRead MoreAnalysis Of Margaret Atwood s The Handmaid s Tale843 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesUnorthodox Characters Ã¢â¬Å"I feel thankful to her. She has died that I may live. I will mourn laterÃ¢â¬ (Atwood 286). Many sacrifices and hard decisions are made by unorthodox people to keep what they believe in alive. There would be no rebellions and no change without these nonconforming people. Offred, the main character and a Handmaiden, would have faced eminent death in her strictly orthodox world had it not been for the rebelliousness of those who died before her wanting change. The Republic ofRead MoreAnalysis Of Mary Atwood And Sylvia Plath s The Handmaid s Tale, And Moira Of Margaret Atwood1905 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesis in this despondent frame of mind, the woman of Sylvia PlathÃ¢â¬â¢s poem, Edge, and Moira of Margaret AtwoodÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, The Handmaids Tale, find themselves accepting their condemnation as their destiny. Both Margaret Atwood and Sylvia Plath use their works as emotional outlets to express the hopeless disposition one comes to embrace having reached the point of exhaustion . Together, Moira from The HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale and the Ã¢â¬Å"perfected womanÃ¢â¬ from Edge exemplify the quality of life or lack thereof, one isRead MoreThe Handmaid s Tale By Margaret Atwood1249 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDystopian Research Essay: The HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale by Margaret Atwood In the words of Erika Gottlieb With control of the past comes domination of the future. A dystopia reflects and discusses major tendencies in contemporary society. The Handmaid s Tale is a dystopian novel written by Margaret Atwood in 1985. The novel follows its protagonist Offred as she lives in a society focused on physical and spiritual oppression of the female identity. Within The Handmaid s Tale it is evident that through the explorationRead MoreThe Handmaid s Tale, By Margaret Atwood1629 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Atwood s novel, The Handmaid s Tale depicts a not too futuristic society of Gilead, a society that overthrows the U.S. Government and institutes a totalitarian regime that seems to persecute women specifically. Told from the main character s point of view, Offred, explains the Gilead regime and its patriarchal views on some women, known as the handmaids, to a purely procreational function. The story is set the present tense in Gilead but frequently shifts to flashbacks in her time at the RedRead MoreMargaret Atwood s The Handmaid s Tale931 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe concept of gender becoming a multi- layered shifting hypothesis to which society is adapting. Since the 19th-century, philosophers and theorists have continued to scrutinize gender beyond biological and social interpretation. Margaret Atwood s The Handmaid s Tale captures the limitations and social implications forced upon a set gender based on societal expectations. Gender is a social construct that limits the individua l to the restrictions and traditions of a society, or if itÃ¢â¬â¢s an individuallyRead MoreThe Reconstruction Of Power By Margaret Atwood943 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHaley Hollimon LTC Bozeman EN 102, L19 3 February 2015 The Reconstruction of Power Throughout The HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale, Margaret Atwood utilizes various elements of fiction to develop and question the concept of power and control in the patriarchal society of Gilead. Offred, the main Handmaid, is the instrument of which Atwood delivers her message about corruption and power. OffredÃ¢â¬â¢s vague diction, unreliable characterization, and erratic tone illustrate the distress of this transitional society (Abcarian
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Art as a Reflection of Life in Death in Venice Death in Venice explores the relationship between an artist, namely Gustave von Aschenbach, and the world in which he lives. Aschenbach, destined to be an artist from a young age, represents art, while his surroundings represent life. As the story unfolds, Aschenbach endeavors on a journey in an attempt to relinquish his position in society as an artist. Aschenbach wants to experience life, as opposed to merely reflecting upon it, as he has done for so many years. This attempted change of lifestyle can also be interpreted as a transition from the ways of Apollo to those of Dionysus, an archetype dating back to Nietzsches Birth of Tragedy. Aschenbachs journey throughout DeathÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Aschenbachs resolution to travel is not described by the author as a voluntary act, but instead portrayed his destiny. Mann writes, Aschenbach regarded travel as a necessary evil. (Mann, 6) His life had been filled with order, austerity, and isolation, essentially elements of an Apollonian lifestyle. Due to the regularity and predictability of his previous life, Aschenbachs decision to travel can be interpreted as an act of fate, thereby making the man on the portico a messenger. Upon being summoned by the messeng er, Aschenbachs first destination is Trieste, a word meaning sad in French. Appropriately enough, this concurs with Aschenbachs outlook towards his upcoming travel. The next event of Aschenbachs twist of fate takes place on the small boat ferrying him to Venice. While onboard, Aschenbach takes note of an elderly man not acting his age. Mann writes, But the young-old man was a truly repulsive sight in the condition to which his company with youth had brought him. (Mann, 19) Seeing a drunken old man passing away the time with the youth is not what disgusted Aschenbach. On the contrary, Aschenbach saw himself in the old man, and rejected the direction which his life had taken. The alcohol is symbolic for the Dionysian surroundings in which Aschenbach finds himself, namely the relaxed, happy, and carefree elements of the scene. However, Aschenbach is fated to stand back and reflect on the scene instead of becoming a part of it because heShow MoreRelatedArt: Comparison and Contrast of 19th Century Art Essay1175 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages there is a difference between their styles, their point of view, and the scenery. However there are similarities betwe en the two paintings. The paintings that will be compared and contrasted are Ã¢â¬Å"Under the Birches, EveningÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The Campo Santo, Venice.Ã¢â¬ The first painting, Ã¢â¬Å"Under the Birches, EveningÃ¢â¬ , is done by Pierre Etienne Theodore Rousseau. He was born on April 15, 1812 in Paris, France. His family saw that he had great potential in being an artist and since their business was profitingRead More Henry James The Wings of the Dove Essay4845 Words Ã |Ã 20 PagesHenry James The Wings of the Dove This paper will present briefly Henry James and his thoughts about the art of fiction that is presented by his same titled essay before thoroughly analyzing his novel: The Wings of the Dove. JamesÃ¢â¬â¢ ideas on his article The Art of Fiction will be applied to The Wings of the Dove and the narrative style that he uses will be indicated by certain quotations taken from the novel. James had read classics of English, American, French, and German literature andRead More Ambiguity, Inconsistency and Uncertainty in Othello Essay example1269 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesand strange. Consider the propriety of the generalÃ¢â¬â¢s slapping the face of Desdemona in the presence of Lodovico: OTHELLO. Devil! [Strikes her.] DESDEMONA. I have not deserved this. LODOVICO. My lord, this would not be believed in Venice, Though I should swear I sawÃ¢â¬â¢t. Ã¢â¬ËTis very much. Make her amends; she weeps. (4.1) Ã Is this violent action not out of place Ã¢â¬â and just plain impossible at this point? No crime by the lady would be deserving of public beating, especiallyRead More Irregularities in Othello1716 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIrregularities in OthelloÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Shakespearean tragedy Othello contains various irregularities of time and occurrence which cause the audience to scratch their head in wonder and doubt. Let us analyze some of these shortcomings in this essay. Ã In the Introduction to The Riverside Shakespeare Frank Kermode explains one of the difficulties in Othello: Ã Othello murders his wife on the second night in Cyprus. The difficulty, of which Shakespeare was clearly aware, arisesRead MoreEssay on Pure and Foolish Love in Othello1275 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesreasoner and foolish lover. The tragedy of `Othello is largely due to Othellos personality and life experience. Othello believes himself to be loved and respected by everyone around him as most people refer to him as the noble General Othello. Othello, after realizing his tragic mistake of murdering his innocent wife, Desdemona, claims he loved not wisely, but too well, this is an honest reflection of himself as his love was true and pure but also foolish. His lack of wisdom is because ofRead MoreEssay on The Imagery of Othello2452 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesImagery of Othello TalksÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the tragedy Othello the Bard of Avon uses imagery to talk between the lines, to set moods, to create a more dramatic impact on the mind of the audience, and for other reasons. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s consider imagery in this essay. Ã A surprising, zoo-like variety of animal injury occur throughout the play. Kenneth Muir, in the Introduction to William Shakespeare: Othello,Ã explains the conversion of Othello through his increased use of animal imagery: Ã ThoseRead MoreThe Role of Prejudice in the Merchant of Venice2395 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesThe Role of Prejudice In The Merchant of Venice This paper discusses the subject of prejudice in the William Shakespeare play, The Merchant of Venice. I. Introduction William Shakespeares satirical comedy, The Merchant of Venice, believed to have been written in 1596 was an examination of hatred and greed.The premise deals with the antagonistic relationship between Shylock, a Jewish money-lender and Antonio, the Christian merchant, who is as generous as Shylock is greedy, particularlyRead More OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s Diversity of Imagery Essay2781 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesof the populous city of Venice Ã¢â¬â IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"world,Ã¢â¬ as it has been called. . . .(132) Ã When Iago returns to the Moor, he resorts to violence in his description of the senator, saying that Ã¢â¬Å"nine or ten times / I had thought to have yerkd him here under the ribs.Ã¢â¬ Othello responds to the antagonist with a whole new set of imagery which is respectable, non-violent, and worthy of imitation; he speaks of his family lineage and the open sea: Ã Ã Ã I fetch my life and being Ã Ã Ã Ã FromRead MoreJealousy and Race in Othello 1430 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescertainly is a timeless classic work of art. Ã¢â¬Å"The object of tragic imitation is men in action.Ã¢â¬ As stated by Aristotle in his work, Poetics. Othello consists of men in action, in more than one sense; Othello (titular character protagonist), Iago and Cassio are Ã¢â¬Ëmen of actionÃ¢â¬â¢ and additionally, throughout the play we are able to observe men and women combating none other than life itself. The play deals with various themes and issues, however, this essay will focus on jealousy and race. OthelloRead MoreEssay on Discrimination Against Women in Othello3067 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesunjustly so. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s talk about the obvious sexism throughout the play. Ã Susan Snyder in Ã¢â¬Å"Othello: A Modern PerspectiveÃ¢â¬ expounds on the sexist notions typical of Venice: Ã The pervasive notion of woman as property, prized indeed but more as object than as person, indicates one aspect of a deep-seated sexual pathology in Venice. [. . .] Fear of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s sexuality is omnipresent in Othello. Iago fans to flames the coals of socially induced unease in Othello, fantasizes on his own about being
Macbeth15 Essay The character of Macbeth is a classic example of a Shakespearean tragic hero. There are many factors which contribute to the degeneration of Macbeth of which three will be discussed. The three points which contribute greatly to Macbeths degeneration are the prophecy which was told to him by the witches, how Lady Macbeth influenced and manipulated Macbeths judgment, and finally Macbeths long time ambition which drove his desire to be king. Macbeths growing character degenerates from a noble man to violent individual. The prophecies which were told by the witches were one of the factors which contributed to the degeneration of his character. If it had not been for the witches telling him that he was to be Thane of Cawdor, Thane of Glamis, and King of Scotland, Macbeth would still be his ordinary self. As a result of the prophecies, this aroused Macbeths curiosity of how he could be King of Scotland. As the play progresses, Macbeth slowly relies on the witches prophecies. Shakespeare uses the witches as a remedy for Macbeths curiosity which corrupts his character. The influence of Macbeths wife, Lady Macbeth also contributed to his degeneration of character. Lady Macbeths character in the beginning reveals that she is a lovable person. When Lady Macbeth was ready to kill King Duncan herself, it showed that Lady Macbeth could not murder King Duncan because he reminded her of her father. This proves that Lady Macbeth has a heart deep inside her. Lady Macbeth plays an important role in this play because she provided a scheme which caused Macbeth to assassinate King Duncan. After Macbeth had killed King Duncan, he later regrets on his wrong doing. At the point of this play the audience can note the change in Macbeths character. Macbeths first murder was a trying experience for him, however after the first murder, killing seemed to be the only solution to maintain his reign of the people of Scotland. Therefore, it was Lady Macbeth who introduced the concept of murder to Macbeth. Macbeths ambition also influenced his declining character. However, Macbeths ambition had not been strong enough to carry the motive to kill King Duncan. Lady Macbeths influence also comes in to play because if not for Lady Macbeth, his ambition would not have been intensified enough to drive him to obtain and maintain his title of King of Scotland no matter what it took, even if it meant murdering. Macbeths ambition influenced the cause of his new character. This new character of Macbeth contained greed, violence, and power hunger. Macbeth shows this when he kills King Duncan. In conclusion, the prophecies given to him by the witches, Lady Macbeths influence and plan, and his intensified ambition, all contributed greatly to his degeneration of character which resulted to his downfalldeath. Therefore Macbeth character displays strong signs of a tragic hero, making him the ideal classic example. Bibliography:
Thursday, April 23, 2020
Was Columbus An Imperialist? Essay, Research Paper Was Columbus an Imperialist? On October 12, 1492, Admiral Colon landed on a tropical Caribbean island. Finding this island was strictly inadvertent. Colon had originally set out to happen a shorter path to China and alternatively discovered the New World. If the intent of Colon # 8217 ; s ocean trip was non seeking out to rule another state ( definition of imperialism ) but to happen a shorter path to China, so how could he be considered an imperialist? While he didn # 8217 ; t put out as an imperialist, some of his actions could be considered imperialistic. One of the chief grounds that Kirkpatrick Sale believes that Colon was an imperialist is because # 8220 ; Colon went on to delegate no fewer than 62 other names on the geographics of the islands # 8230 ; . with a blithe confidence proposing that in his ( and Europe # 8217 ; s ) perceptual experience the act of name-giving was in some sense a amulet of a conquering, a rite that changed natural impersonal stretches of faraway Earth into extensions of Europe. We will write a custom essay sample on Was Columbus An Imperialist Essay Research Paper or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page # 8221 ; . In my sentiment, what Colon did was merely portion of human nature. If I was an adventurer in his times and I thought I had discovered a new universe, I would hold been calling everything in sight upon first stepping on land. Robert Royal doesn # 8217 ; t speak of Colon # 8217 ; s appellative fling in his rebuttal, but he does open with a quotation mark from Columbus. # 8220 ; Let us hear what their remarks are now-those who are so ready with accusals and speedy to happen mistake, stating from their safe positions at that place in Spain, # 8220 ; Why didn # 8217 ; t you do this or that when you were over there. # 8221 ; I # 8217 ; vitamin Ds like to see their kind on this escapade # 8230 ; # 8221 ; . I think that Colon did the best he could with the cognition and leading accomplishments he had. I would be funny to see what Sale would hold done had he been in Colon # 8217 ; s place. Another major ground Sale gives for naming Columbus an imperialist is that Columbus said # 8220 ; And your Highnesses will command a metropolis and fortress to be built in these parts, and these lands converted # 8221 ; . Sale didn # 8217 ; t see a ground for Columbus to desire to construct a fortress. Columbus hadn # 8217 ; t go friendly with all the Indian folk, he may hold thought that someplace in the New World there was a menace to his little colony. Constructing a metropolis and a fortress doesn # 8217 ; Ts make him an imperialist. Columbus did utilize hapless opinion in some respects, but that entirely doesn # 8217 ; Ts make him an imperialist. # 8220 ; If we wish to task Columbus for all the dissymmetries that ensued, we should recognition him every bit good for this initial effort, subsequently repeated by many Spanish governors and theologists, to happen some merely path through the brush of monolithic cultural difference. # 8221 ; To me this quotation mark means that while Columbus mishandled some affairs in his traffics with the Indians, he besides attempted to bridge the # 8220 ; cultural differences # 8221 ; between the Spanish and the indigens. In his diary, Columbus said, # 8220 ; Your Highnesses may believe that in all the universe there can be no better people or gentler people # 8230 ; for neither better people nor land can at that place be # 8230 ; All the people show the most remarkable loving behaviour and T hey speak pleasantly.Ã¢â¬ . In fact, Columbus became really near to King Guacanagari ; they enjoyed each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s company and even exchanged gifts. Guacanagari was so affectionate of Columbus that he asked that he and his brother be allowed to attach to Columbus back to Castile. When it came clip to go forth, Columbus gave his work forces this order: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦avoid as you would decease annoyance or torturing the Indians, bearing in head how much you owe these peopleÃ¢â¬ . I think this shows that Columbus had nil but regard and gratitude for the Indians. Felipe Fernandez-Armesto said, Ã¢â¬Å"Columbus and his replacements were guilty merely of using the best criterions of their timeÃ¢â¬ . Robert Royal makes a good point when he says Ã¢â¬Å"if we think we should reprobate Aztec human forfeit as wrong-not merely a different cultural signifier, but wrong-then we must acknowledge there are cosmopolitan rules that besides allow us to knock improper European usage of forc e, captivity, and exploitation.Ã¢â¬ But society doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t condemn Aztec human forfeit as wrong-we see it for what it is-a cultural difference, hence, European usage of force, captivity and development could besides be seen as a cultural difference, non merely as imperialism. Robert Royal discusses things Columbus did that people question as imperialistic: # 8220 ; He instantly kidnapped some Tainos during his first ocean trip for oppugning and usage as translators. In that act he showed non merely his disdain for Indian life but his belief that Spanish linguistic communication, civilization, and faith were superior and justly to be imposed on native peoples. # 8221 ; # 8220 ; Though Columbus did nobble some American indians, two translators among them, he set one of them free instantly upon returning to Hispaniola during the 2nd ocean trip. He hoped that the Indian set at autonomy would state others of Spain # 8217 ; s admirations and of Columbus # 8217 ; s good purposes. This was na? ve, petroleum, and manipulative on his portion, but shows some shrewdness and good will. # 8221 ; I think that in making this, Columbus wanted to demo the Indians how good life in Spain was and hoped that they would alter their life style. Desiring the Indians to populate as he did does non do him an imperialist. Royal besides says, # 8220 ; we should retrieve that Columbus was placed in unprecedented fortunes and should non be judged in the same manner as we would a modern trained anthropologist. # 8221 ; . Columbus did non anticipate to happen a New World on his journey. He had neer been in this type of state of affairs before, being the leader of a settlement in an unfamiliar topographic point was new to him. I think Columbus did the best occupation that he was capable of. By definition Columbus was non an imperialist. He did non seek out to command a weaker state. He didn # 8217 ; t even know the state existed. He came upon it by opportunity. Some of his actions were less than admirable, but that merely makes us oppugn his accomplishments as a leader. I believe that he could hold been a better leader. He failed to populate peacefully among the Indians as he may hold intended to make upon geting in this universe. But he did win in detecting the universe in which we now call place.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Ebay in China Case Study Essays Ebay in China Case Study Paper Ebay in China Case Study Paper 21/11/2011 E-Bay Strategy In China Alliance or Acquisition? Case Study Strategic Management Gabriela Salamonova Barbora Jandova Pierrick Boissel Julien Meunier Alexandre Godet SUMMARY I. The Input Stage ? ? ? ? ? CAGE VRIO Analysis CPM matrix EFE matrix IFE matrix II. The Matching Stage ? ? ? BCG matrix SPACE matrix GSM matrix III. The Decision Stage ? ? Matrix Analysis QSPM matrix IV. Questions ? ? ? ? Assessment of eBay? choice of market entry strategy for China, listing both the advantages and disadvantages of its acquisition strategy Assessment of the potential benefits and risks of eBay? s joint venture with Tom Online Assessment of both companies: eBay and Tom Online, decisions on their respective percentage of stake Strategic recommendation on International Commercial Strategy for eBay I- The input stage ? C. A. G. E. nalysis Cultural with Ã¢â¬ ¦ Different attitudes in life Different sales practise To prefer local companies Different language, ethnicit ies, religions, social norms Best deal is the lowest price Administrative and political Differences in political system Corruption Market Access restrictions Time zone is different Differences in costs and quality of resources Currency problem Imbalanced economic development Differences with payment system Geographic Big distance between China and USA Economic Differences in consumer incomes Distance most affects industries or product Ã¢â¬ ¦ Distance between two countries increases Auction-selling format is not usual for them, because there the prices went up and they used to deal the lowest price Customer confidence have only local and wellknown companies In China, people want to pay by cash a face to face In China are different government restrictions Different ways of functioning market It can leads to For which communication demand varies misunderstanding by income People in China donÃ¢â¬â¢t have Credit Cards, so prefer to pay by cash The company have to adjust to local currency This C. A. G. E. nalysis provides us information about differences that can create distance between two countries seeking to do business together. Expanding to China can cause some issues with the different culture and political system. In China are different government restrictions like USA and they can significantly affect the economics. In China can be complicated persuade people to trust international companies, and overcome government regulations and currency problem. For the eBay can be useful adjust more for the local environment, and provide good customer services to attract new customers. But on the other side here can be problems with the system of auction, because Chinese people like face to face purchases and they are used to see the prices decreasing instead of increasing. ? VRIO model After analyzing the external analysis of eBay, the next step is to focus internally at eBays core competencies in order to determine whether those strengths provide them with competitive advantages. In order to define these core competencies as competitive advantages or disadvantages, a VRIO analysis must be used. This technique measures each capability against whether it creates value for the company, it is rare in the industry, it is costly to imitate and if it is exploited by the organization. Which competenci es are likely to contribute to added value in terms of customer needs ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Resources / Capabilities Which competenci es are likely to contribute to cost reduction ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Valuabl e Rar e Costl y to Imitat e Exploited by organizatio ns Competitive implications Brand image Customer service Location Product diversificati on Information system Distribution Purchase protection Marketing ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Temporary advantage Parity Disadvanta ge Temporary advantage Parity Parity Temporary advantage Parity According to our VRIO analysis the disadvantage for eBay is its location in China because of imbalanced economic and technological development in different regions of China, differences in political system, government regulatio ns and other factors like corruption and currency problems. Information system is analyzed as the parity. The reason is lack of a customer service hotline on eBay? s websites. But on the other side they try to meet needs their customer, e. g. facilitate payment system. eBay? s executives do not adopt the management style to Chinese conditions. For the majority of population was the only option to pay by cash, because of non-users of credit cards. Also there are problems with the system of auction, because Chinese people like face to face purchases and they are used to deal the lowest price and in auction- selling format usually the prices went up. These issues caused the evaluation of marketing and customer service as the parity. E-Bay had adopted various expansion strategies, both locally in the US and globally in new international markets. It builds a brand image in the US as an industry leader and tries to expand to other foreign countries. Additional temporary advantage related to the purchase protection because respondents extremely agreed that eBay did the best job in monitoring and protecting its users from purchasing counterfeit items from its site. ? Competitive Profile Matrix In CPM is important to identify eBay ? s major competitors, their strengths weaknesses in relation to a sample company ? s strategic position. Proposed CPM shows the clear insight to the eBay about its strong and weak points relative to its major competitor Ã¢â¬â TaoBao. The CPM score is measured on basis of critical success factors, each factor is measured in same scale mean the weight remain same for TaoBao only rating varies. TaoBao was established in May 2003, soon gained the hearts of Chinese consumers and beat eBay EachNet in China? s C2C online auction market. Its service offerings were later extended to include B2C e-commerce. By 2006, the company had become the leading C2C and B2C marketplace in China with a gross merchandise volume of US$2. billion, amounting to a 110% increase from 2005. Unlike eBay EachNet (in 2006) had seen its market share declining each year, until it had only a staggering 29%, compared to TaoBao? s 60%. On the other hand, TaoBao, albeit founded much later than eBay, was a subsidiary of Alibaba which had a more established presence in China. However, given a choice between a new foreign co mpany and a domestic one, Chinese people would opt for the latter. Trust was particularly important in China, due to the lack of an adequate legal system or other formal means of dispute resolution. Critical Success Factors ? ? Market Share Ã¢â¬â by year 2006 eBay? s market share declined to 29%, in comparison to TaoBao? s 60%, Price Ã¢â¬â eBay provides services fees Ã¢â¬â Insertion fee, Optional Features fee, Final Value fee, but to buyers were offered free, in comparison to TaoBao where it was free when they just listed an item, Competitiveness Ã¢â¬â TaoBao disposes with the people? s trust and history because of subsidiary of Alibaba. Also, Chinese people prefer domestic company more than foreign one. Customer Service Ã¢â¬â e. g. TaoBao made an important component of its AliPay system Ã¢â¬â an escrow. It helped ease consumers? concern by introducing thirdparty monitoring throughout the transaction process, eBay introduced it later. Other example can be technical support hotline, Customer Loyalty Ã¢â¬â eBay had not made much effort in building trust both towards the company itself and between buyers and sellers further exacerbated the problem (linked with previous AliPay). Company need to provide security every step of the way during a sales transaction to ensure that consumers feel comfortable making their purchases. This point discouraged buyers and it resulted into switching to competitors, Management Ã¢â¬â eBay? s executives hold on US management style, there is a lack of effort in adaptation to Chinese market, also eBay entered China with the assumption that its brand image in the US as an industry leader would transfer to the Chinese market without any modification, Global Expansion Ã¢â¬â eBay is more extended because of its global presence, TaoBao focus on Chinese market what is in this case competitive advantage because of people? s trust to domestic companies, Website Design Ã¢â¬â eBay provides opic-specific guidelines and links, both of which are meant for self help, this is considered bad thing by consumers in China where do-it-yourself is not as popular as in Western countries. In comparison to TaoBao, its website design suits more because of loaded with ? ? ? ? ? ? information, links, graphics, banners and multimedia. Chinese people also appreciate a customer service and tech nical support hotline. In conclusion, we would like to emphasize the last one line in CPM Ã¢â¬â total weighted score. It is the sum of all weighted score in both cases. E-Bay? s total weighted score is equal to 2. 6. Since it is below the average (2,5) the company is consider as weak. On the other hand TaoBao? s total weighted score is equal to 3. 41. Since it is higher than 2. 5 the company is consider as strong in position, the winner among its competitor eBay. ? IFE matrix ? EFE matrix ? IE matrix To comment this matrix, we can say that Ebay is situated in the Grow and Build part of the matrix. So strategies which could be implemented are market penetration, market development, product development, backward integration, forward integration, horizontal integration. II. The Matching Stage ? BCG matrix: High E-tailing: eBay should develop and invest on this SBU Market growth rate Low Online Auc ons: Leader on this SBU / Great future prospects (Asia /BRICS) eBay should con nue to exploit this SBU and stay the leader on it. 2 1,5 1 Rela ve market show 0,5 0,1 ? Space matrix: FS Conserva ve +6 +5 Aggressive 4. 4 +4 +3 +2 CA -6 -5 -4 -3 +1 -2 -1 -1 -2 -3 -4 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 IS 4. 6 -2,6 -3 Defensive -5 Compe -6 ve ES We can deduce from the matrix that: Bay has an Aggressive strategy, defended by a strong financial capacity, which allows them to tackle competitors not only when they penetrate the market but also when they are established (by kicking them out). The firm evolves in a really competitive environment (with only a few barriers to entry), in which they will still have to improve their situation, particularly in emerging markets, such as e-tailing. ? GSM matrix Ebay is in Quadrant II because its competitive position is weak and there is a h igh market growth. Consequently, different strategies are available for Ebay in China as the horizontal or vertical integration, the market penetration, the divestiture Ã¢â¬ ¦ III. The decision stage ? Matrix Analysis To conclude, we can say that Ebay can establish four main strategies in China: Market penetration, market development, product development and horizontal integration. ? QSPM matrix To conclude, we can see that it could be better for E-bay to organize an alliance with Tom Online because of the opportunities engendered. IV. Questions Introduction E-Bay Inc. a US company providing e-commerce, e-payments and internet communication services globally Ã¢â¬â in 35 global markets across North and Latin America, Europe, and Asia Pacific. By the end of 2006, e-Bay was boasting 14% market share in the e-commerce market. 1. Critically assess eBay? s choice of market entry strategy for China, listing both the advantages and disadvantages of its acquisition strategy E-Bay first entered the Chinese m arket in 2002 by acquiring a 33% stake in its local counterpart, EachNet, followed by a full acquisition a year later in 2003. By its businesses in online sectors reduces its business risks tremendously because of absence of any tangible assets and gives the opportunity to provide infinite number of transactions. ? Entering the BRICs market In terms of long-term action in global market it was valuable to entry the other market of countries famous as BRICs, which are deemed to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development. Chinese market was for e-Bay the second Asian destination after Japan, currently third because of expansion to India. First impressions of acquisition The acquisition proved to be a success. By 2003, EachNet had already commanded 85% market share. Its value had grown almost two and a half times, from US$90 million in 2002 to US$225 million in 2003, and its revenues were recorded at US$1. 8 million equivalent to a ten-fold annual growth rate. ? Researches of e-commerce perspective Market entry strategy focused on bringing something new, specific terminology is ? be-first-or-no thing? strategy. Bay aimed to obtain markets with great potential for e-commerce proved by researches giving perspective results in China, undoubtedly the researches are most important when the company entering a new foreign market. ? Creation alliances Trust We can positively evaluate the creation of alliances with the top three Chinese internet portals Sina, Sohu and NetEase for better visibility in the market. Despite this, eBay had to struggle with distrust coming from Chinese people because it had not made much effort in building trust. Chinese people at first did not trust to new foreign US provider of e-commerce services. They used to be in direct interaction with sellers until they received the purchase, because they felt uncertain about paying. ? Localising websites and modification E-Bay entered China with the assumption that its brand image in the US as an industry leader would transfer to the Chinese market without any modification. eBay had done a good job in localising its websites. Creating market-specific websites in local languages and 4 currencies and providing location-specific information, among other things. It also attempted to protect its brand image worldwide. Design of websites E-Bay used a similarly simple interface, emphasised automation throughout the auction and transaction processes. Also has allocated the section for frequent answered questions and provided topic-specific guidelines, both of which were meant for self help. Unfortunately Chinese people did not appreciate it, because the ? do-ityourself? system was not so popular customers considered it as s bad service. The adva ntages and disadvantages of its acquisition strategy Advantages China has immense market potential because all around the world are 1,23 billion Chinese language speakers. In China growing prosperity, technological advances. There is more liberal attitude by the Chinese authorities, what means the internet is becoming an easier and more popular place to do business. In China increase popularity of e-commerce. As more and more Chinese consumers had access to the internet and began to buy online. By February 2000, just six months after its start, EachNet had over 220,000 registered users simultaneously holding more than 20,000 auctions each day Acquisition of EachNet. It was Chinas first online auction website with rich business knowledge, strong domestic and international experience, and well-thought business strategies. EachNet was able to win financial backing from several large venture capital companies in the US In China retailers offer products seldom online and people could shop everything in the comfort of their own home. EBay EachNet was also the largest online advertiser in China. Its performance was remarkable, and by the end of 2003, the number of registered users on EachNet had reached 4. 3 million, amounting to nearly a 95% increase from its 2000 level. Disadvantages In China could be problems with slow internet speeds, high internet access costs, imbalanced economic and technological development in different regions of China, the absence of a reliable credit system for online payment, government regulations and other factors like corruption, currency problems. Auction-selling format might have discouraged some consumers from shopping on EachNet. In China, retailers and customer would haggle over almost anything in order to get the best deal, and the best usually meant the lowest price they could have. Thus, an auction-selling format where prices only went up might have seemed bizarre to most Chinese consumers. Emerging competitors TaoBao (Alibaba subsidiary). EBay EachNet faced the obstacle of increasing competition from local market rivals. By the end of 2006 eBay EachNet had its market share only a staggering 29%, compared to TaoBaos 60%. Big disadvantage was short history of eBay. The eBay was as a foreign company founded in 1995 with less than ten years of history when it first set foot in the Chinese market in 2002. So it was as fairly new to Chinese consumers. TaoBao was founded much later than eBay, but n the other hand it was a subsidiary of Alibaba which had a more established presence in China. The eBay used online payment system PayPal and it did not incorporate an escrow into this system. But on the other hand competitor TaoBao, made it an important component of its AliPay system. An escrow helped ease consumers concern by introducing third-party monitoring throughout the transaction process. And in this way eBay lost some customer. 2. Assess the potential benefits and risks of eBay? joint venture with Tom Online The joint venture formed by E-Bay EachNet and Tom Online presents some benefits as well as some risks. Benefits ? Knowledge of the Chinese market Tom Online has a strong knowledge of the Chinese market which is that E-Bay is looking for in order to gain market share and notoriety on the Chinese market. And as we said earlier, in order to tackle the Chinese market companies need a partner in order to have the political acces s, and Tom Online political connection could be very helpful for E-Bay success in China. Tom Online = a famous brand in China The first benefit we can find is that TOM Online is a Chinese domestic brand, which is much better for consumers of China. In fact Chinese consumers mostly like well know Chinese brands even in the Internet. Tom Online is a well know company in China, leader in sphere of mobile value-added services, and its internet portal, www. tom. com, is one of the biggest and most popular in China. This brand is recognized throughout China and the internet. ? Knowledge of telecommunication services One of the problems of E-bay EachNet was the communication and telecommunication services. Tom Online has a good experience in cooperation with Skype and the result was pretty good. Tom Online succeed with Skype and it has the knowledge to present new product in the market and how to increase its market share. Moreover, this joint venture allowed E-bay to enter the mobile commerce market, their users could participate in online auctions using their mobile phone, PDA, etc, a sector in which Tom Online had been a market leader Risks ? Devaluation of E-bay image Risks on this joint venture exist for E-Bay. In fact there is a risk of devaluation of the E-Bay Brand in the Chinese market because customers will be focus on the Tom Online and/or EachNet brand, product and services. ? Financial risk Also there is a financial risk. E-Bay can lose some money because Tom Online has 2% bigger ownership, but in amount of money, E-Bay invests two times more than Tom Online, and the success will depends more of Tom Online company than E-Bay work. ? Difference of targeted customers Also a last risk could be the target of E-Bay and Tom Online. Tom Online is focused on mobile value-added services and their target audience is generally young consumers, but E-Bay target audience is a little older. ? Culture difference E-Bay is an American company, different than the Chinese in the way of thinking and doing things. This might causes E-bay a hard time adjusting to the Chinese market needs, and trust issue (even though they tried to resolve it by owning only 49% of the company). 3. eBay will have a 49% stake in the new joint venture while Tom Online will have 51% ownership. Critically assess both companies, decisions on their respective percentage of take. In December 2006, eBay Inc. , announced its plan to form a joint venture with Chinabased online portal and wireless operator, TOM Online, that would give each company 49% and 51% ownership respectively. This was eBayÃ¢â¬â¢s third strategic move in China, following its acquisition of a 33% stake in domestic counterpart EachNet in 2002 that marked its entry into the market, and a full acquisition in 2003. Despite the initial good results, eBay had been losing market share to local rival and AlibabaÃ¢â¬â¢s fully-owned subsidiary- TaoBao. By 2006, eBay had seen its market share drop from a high of 85% to a staggering 29%, while TaoBaoÃ¢â¬â¢s continued to increase, reaching 60%. The joint venture was therefore an attempt by eBay to save its failing Chinese operations. The move also reflected the increasing difficulties foreign internet companies were facing in China because of fierce competition and a changing market environment. eBay believed that it would benefit from TOM OnlineÃ¢â¬â¢s local knowledge and political connections. The first thing we can say about E-Bay EachNet and Tom OnlineÃ¢â¬â¢s joint venture is that is a success. Although E-Bay is a big company and success in US and around the world, China is a particular market where the better can lose. E-Bay had some difficulties to launch its business due to the cultural differences and moral values. Chinese people are more ? nationalist? and still trust their own companies more and respect them. The good thing for E-Bay is that Tom Online is a successful company with a good reputation on the Chinese market. Their activity area is also not far from E-BayÃ¢â¬â¢s mainly internet and other IT services, and mobile entertainment. Tom Online known also a business expansion and cooperation with Skype, and today they also know a decrease in revenues so joint venture also was an opportunity for them. But we can ask us about the percentage of the participation. Why the participation is 49% for E-Bay and 51% for Tom Online? And also why E-Bay invests more than Tom Online? And why does the E-Bay brand disappear on the Joint Venture (Tom EachNet)? We can try to explain this situation thanks to several factors. About the brand we know that Chinese trust more in a local brand. That why E-Bay not appears on the joint venture name. E-Bay prefers having two well known local brands (Tom and EachNet). Also in this joint venture, Tom Online invest US $ 20 million and brings the knowledge of the local market, the technology and the brand value, which could be more important than money in order to tackle a market. Moreover TOM Online has very important persons among their shareholders. This joint venture would open a whole new market segment for both Ã¢â¬â E-Bay and also TOM Online, allowing them to fulfil and widen significantly together. Why not launching E-Bay in the mobile world? As we said before, China is a difficult market to tackle and launch a sustainable company on this market is a hard work. But this market gives the opportunity of customers which could increase the revenues (approximately US $ 1. 5 billion). The stacks are so important for E-Bay and Tom Online that the Tom EachNet joint venture was a good answer for their difficulties in China. 4. Strategic recommendation on International Commercial Strategy for eBay One of the first recommendations for eBayÃ¢â¬â¢s growth would be to maintain global growth initiative (China and India). The number of internet user is increasing in those countries. The difficulties for eBay are to success the integration of the Chinese market. Indeed, the eBayÃ¢â¬â¢s image brand in China is critical by Chinese people. They explain that eBay is not trustee website, the direct competitor TaoBao has free services. Moreover others problems are the difficulties to integrate the Chinese market due to the different laws, rules, or the control of internet by the Chinese government. The second recommendations would concern the electronic innovation. For example, the interface of the website could adapt to the difference of culture of the market targeted, the website should be more secured to keep or have a trustee imageÃ¢â¬ ¦ The third thing would be to set up new services or new application. For example, the e-tailing could be a good service. E-tailing is synonymous with business-to-consumer (B2C) transaction, and it is the selling of retail goods on the Internet. The last recommendation would be the reinforcing the marketing and the fact to keep a step ahead towards the competitors. The different recommendations on International Commercial Strategy for E-bay could be: ? Maintain global growth initiative: ? Alliances ? New markets (develop India and China) ? New products ? Keep different cultures in mind ? Technological development: ? Rapid application development (software for new and existing market areas, e-tailing) ? Security: ? Back-up systems ? Online verifications of electronics goods ? Enhance trustee service ? Online banking protocols ? Enhance back-end ? Reinforcing marketing: ? Improve and maintain their image brand ? Global branding to make eBay generic brand with online auctions and etailing ? Step ahead: ? Identify and analyze global trends ? Innovative products and interface
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Assessment by Portfolio and Standardized Testing - Smart Custom Writing Law in BookLaw refers to the universal guiding principles that give the description of the fundamental nature of a thing, to universal belongings and relationship between things. The Ã¢â¬Å"rule of lawÃ¢â¬ solely depends on uniform usage of laws and the common procedure. This implies that the legal procedure should be separated off from the political processes that the judges and the courts should be independent. It also important to note that law or the legal process is really difficult to sustain. This is due to the fact that powerful forces are always trying to bias law in their direction and it is clear that it has been an easy principle to maintain but very fragile (Jacob, 1998). My understanding concerning black letter law is that it is the established standards for a particular law or orthodoxy. These are the things we always find in text books and comprises of the prepositions that judges are capable of citing argument. Laws or rather the black letter law is vital since it is highly authoritative and can be expected to be applied with high degree of certainty. All the same, Ã¢â¬Å"Law in ActionÃ¢â¬ reminds us that no matter how interesting or elegant a theory might appear to be we must always ask ourselves, Ã¢â¬Å"Why should it matter to the individuals across the world?Ã¢â¬ Generally, the black letter law can also be referred to as that basic standards or elements of a particular law that can not be disputed. This term is common in the American legal framework but in English law, it is used in referring to areas of law that are characterized by technical rules rather than having conceptual basis. Law in action is our signature approach to understanding the legal education and framework that captures the unique and special role played by most institutions within legal education (Willard, 1968). The law is also based on the conceptual framework that affects all our undertakings. The concept of law in action presents itself any moment that we happen to discuss who we are and who we desire to be. When you join most of the faculties you will always here this phrase and later came to realize that it symbolizes that in order to truly understand the law, you have to understand the law on the books first. It also goes beyond statutes and cases and focuses on how law is applied out there in the community level. "Law in Action" is an orientation that has led to our public status for ground-breaking approaches to both teaching and scholarship. It also embraces our superiority over the years in fields such as legal history, criminal justice, industrial relations, law and society, and proportional institutional money matters. This law offers a challenge to us by combining our expertise and scholarly traditions with the strengths of the great academia of which we are a part, in order to presume national leadership in emerging areas such as bioethics, globalization, and other dimensions of law and technology (Jacob, 1998). Law in Action's Relevance for the Future Our famous law in action still flourishes and develops year by year, and it generally occupies the central position in all our undertakings in connection to our Strategic Plan. "Law in Action" gives us the focus to understand the confrontations of remaining one of the nations unsurpassed law schools. With the help of law in action, it is clear that we will continue to build our national status for distinction and our dedication to the "Law in Action" philosophy. It is a philosophy that has served most Law School graduates well over the past century, and it is one that may prove even more relevant for tomorrow's graduates as we are increasingly being faced with a more multifarious, aggressive, and demanding world. When we look at the famous factious legal case created by Lon Fuller in his article, Ã¢â¬Å"The Case of the Speluncean Explorers,Ã¢â¬ we find that the case gives us the picture of a group of spelunkers or cave explorers trapped by landslide. It is evident that upon realizing that they are approaching a point when they are going to be faced with starvation, they make radio call to the rescue team and engineersÃ¢â¬â¢ estimates that rescue team are likely to take another ten days. The spelunkers are astonished whether they are going to survive for all those ten years. But all in all, after being rescued they are prosecuted for murder and in that case or some moment later Newgarth carries a mandatory death penalty (Paul, King, 1997). As in the case of the policeman and the driver who was driving under the influence of alcohol and begins to argue with the cop when questioned, it is clear that the driver is against the law but pretends not to understand. He is then told by the police that Ã¢â¬Å"That is the lawÃ¢â¬ meaning that where there is no law there is tyranny and oppression. The driver feels that since he is driving his own car it is not necessary to have driving license since it is meant for those driving public vehicle services. This also supports the similar concept of the rule of lawÃ¢â¬ where written law in control of individual behaviors not the whims of a strong man ruler (Jacob, 1998). To conclude, it is evident that the law is meant to safeguard the interest of the general public, their lives, as well as property. And it is also important to note that when the law ends, begins tyranny. Without law in place people are likely to be treated in the manner that is not appropriate since there are those taking law into their hands (Jacob, 1998). References Jacob H. (1998) Law in action: legal frontiers for natural resources planning. Oxford: Oxford University Press Paul, D. and King, E. (1997) Law and the Wisconsin Idea, 47 Journal of Legal Education 297 Willard, H. (1968) Changing Responsibilities of the Law School 1868-1968, Wisconsin L. Rev. 336.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
If you could do one of the activities you listed in the Activities Section of your Common Application, which one would you keeping doing Why(100 words) - Essay Example I love car-repair and practices it at all times. Notably, the requirements of mechanical engineering are always precise and applicable in almost all car functions. The description of cars and difference in functionality has always been attractions towards mechanics. I will never stop working with cars. Continuous car repair will give me ideas on the fundamental of expert artisanship and innovative technology. Moreover, I will gain more knowledge about car engine operations, maintenance and necessary precautions while handling automobiles. All-inclusive theoretical and practical knowledge are primary in the comprehension of mechanical engineering course. Working on car repairs will boost my understanding of the dynamics behind auto mechanics. Indeed, I will be able to keep up with continuous technological innovations in the car industry. I will also acquire the necessary analytical skills that can enable me to offer guidance to anybody that intends to purchase a car. Finally, I will perfect my skills through early exposure to mechanics as a preparation for future tasks of a mechanical